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Wonders of the Immune System

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first_imgNote: While the editor is out of town, we are bringing you readings of interest from creation books associated with CEH.Wonders of the Immune System, by Dr Henry Richterfrom Spacecraft Earth, a Guide for Passengers (CMI, 2017, ch. 2, “The Spacesuit: The Amazing Human Body,” pp. 49-51).The adaptive immune system is found only in vertebrates. This complicated system has multiple components, which include antigens, antibodies, and various types of blood cells such as B and T lymphocytes. The collective interaction of these components results in a coordinated, multi-level response to infectious organisms. Antigens are things that trigger an immune response. They might be proteins, polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates), or foreign substances, including molecules found in bacteria, viruses and fungi, or substances that mark the surface of cells with foreign materials such as pollen or transplanted tissue.When antigens are detected, the body goes to work producing custom antibodies to fight them. Antibodies, or immunoglobulins, are proteins directed against specific antigens; they are formed in the lymph nodes or bone marrow by mature D lymphocytes called plasma cells. These are placed into circulation throughout the body to bind and neutralize antigens wherever they are found. This type of response, called humoral immunity, is mainly against toxins and free pathogens (those not ingested by phagocytes) in body fluids.A second type of response, called cell-mediated immunity, does not produce antibodies, but instead triggers the production of T lymphocytes, which act against specific threats. T cells are able to neutralize bacteria, fungi, cancer cells, transplanted tissue cells, and cells that have been invaded by viruses. In each case, the immune response prevents the invaders from causing further damage to the host. As if that were not enough, there’s another immune response called the complement system. This is composed of a group of proteins circulating in the blood. They facilitate the immune response in two ways: by attracting phagocytes (‘eating cells’) to the area so that they can swallow the invaders, and by forming a protein complex that attaches to the foreign cell, causing lysis (splitting, or death) of the invaders.Two remarkable qualities of our immune system are its specificity and memory. When an antigen enters a body, it elicits production of either a specific antibody or specific immunologically competent cells; that is, the antibody or the cells will neutralize only the antigen that evokes them. Furthermore, the system exhibits what appears to be memory. Once challenged by an antigen such as the measles virus, the body ‘remembers’ it for years and usually for life. The child who has had an attack of measles becomes permanently immune to it. If the child is exposed to this specific antigen at a later date, the immune system recognizes it and responds, and thereby prevents a reinfection. Indeed, these two characteristics of the immune system—specificity and memory—serve as the basis for preventive immunizations. Inoculation of infants or children with an inactivated or attenuated biotic agent will cause the immune system to be made alert to such an antigen, should it appear at a later date. Poliomyelitis, for example, once dreaded as a leading cause of paralysis and death, has been effectively controlled, if not abolished, with the polio vaccine, at least in most developed countries.Medical science and physiological research has barely begun to understand all of the facets of the human immune system. We surely could not survive without it. Of the body systems we’ve examined so far, it’s a great example of multiple, disparate parts working together in harmony. It could not have arrived piecemeal. A phagocyte that can ‘eat’ another cell would be a monster if not responsive to a signal transduction system that tells it what to attack. A thymus gland that can match antibodies to antigens would be useless if other parts of the system did not recognize the antibodies in order to attach to infected cells and destroy them. The lymph nodes, the marrow within our bones that produce blood cells, the specific enzymes that circulate in blood and lymph, and a host of other things are all involved together, each one necessary to make the immune system work. Thankfully, everything is there that is necessary, and the system usually works very well.(Visited 299 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

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Nominations now open for OABA Industry Excellence Awards

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first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The Ohio AgriBusiness Association will recognize outstanding leaders in the agribusiness industry through the OABA Industry Excellence Awards.OABA has a distinguished history of providing educational opportunities to its member companies and their employees. The Industry Excellence Awards are OABA’s next step to recognizing stories of professionalism, stewardship and excellence within the agribusiness industry.“Our industry is filled with stories of outstanding leaders who go above and beyond for their companies and customers,” said Chris Henney, president and CEO of OABA. “Through these awards, we can honor the excellence and professionalism of those leaders and inspire others.”Members are now able to nominate their employees for three award opportunities: Achievement as an Emerging Leader, Excellence in Customer Service and Excellence in Safety & Stewardship.Award recipients will be recognized at the 2019 OABA Industry Conference on Jan. 31. Winners will receive complimentary registration and lodging for the conference, recognition in industry publications and a $1,000 cash award.Nominations must be submitted by Sept. 20 to Ohio Agribusiness Association, 5151 Reed Road, Suite 126-C, Columbus, Ohio 43220. To nominate an employee, visit oaba.net/awards to download the applications. For additional information, contact Nicole Wallace at 614-326-7520 or nwallace@oaba.net.last_img read more

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Every Green Builder Needs to Have This Book on the Shelf

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first_imgThere are a small number of books that have been so important to me that I buy them in quantity to give to friends. To new parents I give Kids Are Worth It by Barbara Coloroso, and to new employess, How to Win Friends and Influence People by Dale Carnegie. Among the books I give to my fellow green builders is The E-Myth Revisited by Michael Gerber.We’re in the sustainable building business, so it’s only natural that we would employ sustainable business practices too. To some extent that means working for a triple bottom line that values not just profits, but people and planet as well. Fundamentally, it means following business practices that will ensure your business’s future, and there is no future in working sixty hours a week and barely making wages.Crisis is not sustainableTo be sustainable, your business needs to pay you, the owner, as well as the employees a living wage (enough to send your kids and your employee’s kids to college). It should have a decent health plan and enable you and your employees to have nights and weekends at home with family, and it ought to be able to run smoothly without you so that you can go on vacation and even (gasp!) retire someday without having to hand out pink slips sell your tools and equipment.The E-Myth Revisited was the book that first opened my eyes to the idea that I could achieve this balance by creating systems to automate some of the repetitive tasks of my business: invoicing, product selection, bill paying — the basic administrative things that need to get done on any project. The book uses the concept of “franchising” your business, showing you how to build repeatable systems so you can stop reinventing the wheel and living from crisis to crisis and focus your attention on the things that differentiate your business from the competition.“Green” is a systems approach to building; this is a systems approach to business.The book is subtitled Why Most Small Businesses Don’t Work and What to Do About It. His point is that many small businesses are started by craftsmen and technicians who love their work but view the business side as a “necessary evil.” Once they get the business part of their companies systematized (on “autopilot”), they can be free to truly excel at the craft they love. Without those systems, they are condemned to a life of crises, long hours, and cash-flow problems. Gerber also has a thinner book called The E-Myth Contractor, which I don’t recommend. I think the ideas are presented more clearly in the original.last_img read more

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Viral gastroenteritis

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first_imgDefinitionViral gastroenteritis is sometimes called the “stomach flu.” It refers to swelling orinflammation of the stomach and intestines from a virus. The infection can lead to diarrhea and vomiting.Alternative NamesRotavirus infection; Norwalk virus; Gastroenteritis – viral; Stomach fluCauses, incidence, and risk factorsGastroenteritis can affect one person or a group of people who all ate the same food or drank the same water. The germs may get into the food you eat (called contamination) in different ways.Viral gastroenteritis is a leading cause of severe diarrhea in both adults and children. Many types of viruses can cause gastroenteritis. The most common ones are: Norovirus (Norwalk-like virus) is common among school-age children. It may also cause outbreaks in hospitals and on cruise ships.Rotavirus isthe leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. It can also infect adults who are exposed to children with the virus, and people living in nursing homes.AstrovirusEnteric adenovirusSymptomsSymptoms most often appear within 4 to 48 hours after contact with the contaminated food or water, and include:Abdominal painDiarrheaNausea and vomitingOther symptoms may include:Chills, clammy skin, orsweatingFeverJoint stiffness or muscle painPoor feedingWeight lossSigns and testsThehealth care provider will look for signs of dehydration, including:Dry or sticky mouthLethargy or coma (severe dehydration)Low blood pressureLow or no urine output; concentrated urine that looks dark yellowMarkedly sunken soft spots (fontanelles) on the top of an infants headNo tearsSunken eyesTests that examine stool samples may be used to identify which virus is causing the sickness. This is usually not needed for viral gastroenteritis. A stool culture may be done to find out whether bacteria are causing the problem.advertisementTreatmentThe goal of treatment is to prevent dehydration by making sure the body has enough water and fluids. Fluids and electrolytes (salt and minerals) that are lost through diarrhea or vomiting must be replaced by drinking extra fluids. Even if you are able to eat, you should still drink extra fluids between meals.Older children and adults can drink sports beverages such as Gatorade, but these should not be used for youngerchildren. Instead, use the electrolyte and fluid replacement solutions or freezer pops available in food and drug stores.Do NOT use fruit juice (including apple juice), sodas or cola (flat or bubbly), Jell-O, or broth. All of these have a lot of sugar, which makes diarrhea worse, and they dont replace lost minerals.Drink small amounts of fluid (2-4 oz.) every 30-60 minutes. Do not try to force large amounts of fluid at one time, which can cause vomiting. Use a teaspoon or syringe for an infant or small child.Breast milk or formula can be continued along with extra fluids. You do NOT need to switch to a soy formula.Food may be offeredoften in small amounts. Suggested foods include:Cereals, bread, potatoes, lean meatsPlain yogurt, bananas, fresh applesVegetablesPeople with diarrhea who are unable to drink fluids because of nausea may need intravenous (directly into a vein) fluids. This is especially true in small children.Antibiotics do not work for viruses.Drugs to slow down the amount of diarrhea (anti-diarrheal medications) should not be given without first talking with your health care provider. DO NOT give these anti-diarrheal medications to children unless directed to do so by a health care provider.People taking water pills (diuretics) who develop diarrhea may be told by their health care provider to stop taking the diuretic during the acute episode. However, DO NOT stop taking any prescription medicine without first talking to your health care provider.The risk of dehydration is greatest in infants and young children, so parents should closely monitor the number of wet diapers changed per day when their child is sick.You can buy medicines at the drugstore that can help stop or slow diarrhea.Do not use these medicines without talking to your health care provider if you have bloody diarrhea, a fever, or if the diarrhea is severe.Do not give these medicines to children.Expectations (prognosis)The illness usually runs its course in a few days without treatment.Children may become severely ill from dehydration caused by diarrhea.People with the highest risk for severe gastroenteritis include young children, the elderly, and people who have a suppressed immune system.ComplicationsRotavirus causes severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Severe dehydration and death can occur in thisage group.Calling your health care providerCall your health care provider if diarrhealasts for more than several days or if dehydration occurs. You should also contact yourhealth care providerif you or your child has these symptoms:advertisementBlood in the stoolConfusionDizzinessDry mouthFeeling faintNauseaNo tears when cryingNo urine for 8 hours or moreSunken appearance to the eyesSunken soft spot on an infants head (fontanelle)PreventionMost viruses and bacteria arepassed from person to personby unwashed hands. The best way to prevent viral gastroenteritis is to handle food properly and wash your hands thoroughly after using the toilet.Vaccinationto prevent severe rotavirus infectionis recommended for infants starting at age 2 months.ReferencesDuPontHL. Approach to the patient with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 291.Semrad CE. Approach to the patient with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 142.Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtrans Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2010:chap 107.Zulfigar AB. Acute gastroenteritis in children. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2011:chap 332.Bass DM. Rotaviruses, caliciviruses, and astroviruses. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2011:chap 257.Review Date:4/26/2012Reviewed By:Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Divison of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington; and George F. Longstreth, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, San Diego, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.last_img read more

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10 months agoLiverpool boss Klopp: Brazil have 2 best keepers in the world

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first_imgAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Liverpool boss Klopp: Brazil have 2 best keepers in the worldby Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveLiverpool boss Jurgen Klopp says Alisson Becker is crucial for his team system.As well as making some crucial saves, his vision and distribution have added another dimension to Liverpool’s attacking play.“Alisson is unbelievably important,” Klopp said.“They all have their specific importance, for sure, but Ali is not only the goalkeeper. He is an outfield player as well and that helps of course.”Alisson has given Liverpool what fellow countryman Ederson gave Manchester City en route to winning the Premier League crown last season.The elite duo will go head to head in Thursday night’s top-of-the-table clash at the Etihad.“Tafarrel was the goalkeeper I knew from Brazil, an outstanding goalkeeper, but I don’t remember a lot of world-class ones,” Klopp added.“Now they have two of the world’s best, if not the world’s best. It is incredible.“Coming from Germany, I know how important Manuel Neuer was with his football playing on top of his goalkeeping skills.“You can’t imagine that two can come along with the same skills and maybe even a bit better. What I would say is these two boys do not have to hide.” last_img read more

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25 days agoClub Brugge keeper Mignolet backing Hazard for Real Madrid success

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first_imgAbout the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your say Club Brugge keeper Mignolet backing Hazard for Real Madrid successby Carlos Volcano25 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveClub Brugge goalkeeper Simon Mignolet is backing Belgium teammate Eden Hazard for success with Real Madrid.Hazard has only featured in four games across all competitions so far this season and he is yet to send the ball into the back of the net.”He is a world star, I know the quality he has and how he can play at the highest level,” Mignolet said ahead of their Champions League meeting.”Now he is in a new team and needs time, but I am sure he will succeed and will be a star at Real Madrid.”The Belgian goalkeeper also believes that Thibaut Courtois has what it takes to be a Real Madrid shotstopper.”[Courtois’] last weeks have been difficult after the Paris Saint-Germain game, but he has returned to his level,” Mignolet added.”He is a world class goalkeeper who always demonstrates his virtues.”He has all the qualities to be Real Madrid’s goalkeeper.” last_img read more

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A Michigan State Fan Created A 14-Minute Hype Video To Celebrate The Mark Dantonio Era

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first_imgMark Dantonio excited for the teams recent win.mark dantonio hype videoSince taking over at Michigan State back in 2007, Mark Dantonio has led the Spartans to a 75-31 record (45-19 in conference), including four seasons with at least 11 wins. He’s also won the Big Ten title (2013) and posted victories in the Outback Bowl, the Buffalo Wild Wings Bowl, the Rose Bowl and the Cotton Bowl. MSU has finished the season ranked No. 3 and No. 5, respectively, over the past two years.Wednesday, a Michigan State fan who goes by MSUAndyHRCMB put together an incredible 14-minute hype video that pays homage to the Dantonio era. It’s titled “Big Stick.” It’s been going viral among MSU supporters.Michigan State kicks off its 2015 campaign at Western Michigan on Friday night.last_img

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Idle No More Defenders of the Land form alliance call for Sovereignty

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first_imgBy Jorge Barrera APTN National NewsIdle No More has joined forces with Defenders of the Land and the new alliance plans to launch “escalating action” during what is being called the “Sovereignty Summer,” according to a draft joint declaration obtained by APTN National News.The alliance has been endorsed by Jessica Gordon, Sylvia McAdam, Sheelah McLean and Nina Wilson, the four founders of Idle No More, along with the movement’s lead organizers, provincial and territorial chapters.As a result of the alliance, Idle No More has now agreed to support non-violent direct action, including blockades, in the cause of Indigenous rights.The Defenders of the Land is an established network of Indigenous activists that was formally formed in 2008. The network has been involved in Indigenous land rights issues across the country, including in ongoing hotspots like Ontario’s Grassy Narrows First Nation, Kitchenuhmaykoosib Inninuwug First Nation and Barriere Lake in Quebec.The joint declaration is calling for a “Sovereignty Summer” that would see “co-ordinated non-violent direct actions.” The statement also calls on “non-Indigenous peoples” to join Indigenous communities in the actions.“Alternatives will only come to life if we escalate our actions, taking bold non-violent direct action that challenges the illegitimate power of corporations who dictate government police,” says the draft declaration.The declaration also calls for a “Solidarity Spring” to precede the Sovereignty Summer with calls to action on March 21, International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, and April 22, Earth Day.“The Harper government’s agenda is clear: to weaken all collective rights and environmental protections, in order to turn Canada into an extraction state that gives corporations unchecked power to destroy our communities and environment for profit,” says the statement. “Idle No More and Defenders of the Land….have joined together to issue this common call for escalating action.”The declaration makes several demands, including a repeal of sections of the now passed Bill C-45 that impact the environment along with Aboriginal and Treaty rights; changing the electoral system to proportional representation; ensuring consultation happens before any legislation is introduced that impacts collective rights and the environment; the full implementation of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples; an end to the government’s policies of “extinguishment;” full implementation of the treaties and a national inquiry into murdered and missing Indigenous women.“We know it will take a lot more to defeat (Prime Minister Stephen Harper) and the corporate agenda. But against the power of their money and weapons, we have the power of our bodies and spirits,” says the declaration. “There is nothing that can match the power of peaceful, collective action in defense of the people and Mother Earth.”jbarrera@aptn.ca@JorgeBarreralast_img read more

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Facebook launches Messenger Kids in Canada despite controversy in US

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first_imgFacebook says it has launched its messenger app for kids in Canada.Messenger Kids is an app that allows kids to video call and message friends and family using a smartphone or tablet.Parents can control their child’s contact list and kids can’t hide messages.The app allows them to call or message adults on their Facebook Messenger, so those 13 years or older and with a Facebook account don’t have to download the separate app.Facebook launched the kids app in the United States last year where dozens of organizations, doctors, academics and others called on Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg to discontinue the app.They said in an open letter dated January 30 that the app is very likely to undermine children’s health development as research shows excessive use of digital devices and social media is harmful to young people.last_img read more

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BC halts northeast fracking operations while it investigates earthquakes

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first_imgCompanies mentioned in this article: (TSX:CNQ)The Canadian Press FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. — The BC Oil and Gas Commission is shutting down oilfield fracking operations in an area in the northeast part of the province for at least 30 days while it investigates earthquakes that occurred there on Nov. 29.The regulator says the seismic events measuring between 3.4 and 4.5 magnitude took place near hydraulic fracturing operations being conducted about 20 kilometres southeast of Fort St. John by Calgary-based Canadian Natural Resources Ltd.It says the company immediately suspended that work and it won’t be allowed to resume without the written consent of the commission.According to Natural Resources Canada, the 4.5 magnitude earthquake was felt in Fort St. John, Taylor, Chetwynd and Dawson Creek but did no damage. It was followed by two smaller aftershocks.Hydraulic fracturing involves injecting large amounts of water, sand and chemicals into a well to break up tight rock underground and allow trapped oil and gas to flow.The technology, along with injecting oilfield liquids into disposal wells, have been linked by the B.C. commission to previous incidents of “induced seismicity,” although it notes on its website none of the events in B.C. have resulted in hazards to safety or the environment or property damage.last_img read more

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